When this specific functioning of insulin is altered and glucose is unable to enter the cells from the blood, this condition is medically termed as Diabetes mellitus. The syndrome is divided into two types. Diabetes type 1 is a type of diabetes in which patients suffer from deficiency of insulin. The pancreas that produces insulin becomes incapable of producing it any more causing insulin deficiency in the body. Diabetes type 2 occurs when the body develops a resistance against the functioning and effects of insulin. When this happens, the cells will no longer allow insulin carrying glucose from the blood to enter inside them. In both conditions the amount of glucose in the blood increases which is a common indicator of a diabetes patient. For understanding diabetes properly we must have a deep look on the various aspects of the two types of the syndrome.
Type 1 Diabetes:
As you already know that, in diabetes type 1 body suffers from insulin deficiency. Pancreas produces insulin that plays a major role in the fat and carbohydrate metabolism. In diabetes type 1 the beta cells present in the pancreas that produces insulin gets damaged by autoimmune destruction. Hence there is a complete stop in the production of insulin and leading to an increase in the quantity of glucose present in the blood and urine.
Although the actual cause behind the triggering of the syndrome is not exactly understood there are certain approximations made by doctors behind the occurrence of the disease. Some of the factors that can lead to diabetes type 1 are heredity transmission in which patient gets the disease by inheritance, coming in contact with certain virus, environmental factors, abnormality in diet, and usage of certain chemicals and drugs. There is no proper cure for the disease but it can be managed and with better control over the disease, patient can lead a complete healthy life without facing severe complications.
Type 1 Diabetes is treated by administering insulin to the patient at periodic intervals. Insulin is directly injected into the body of the patient with an injection and complications may arise if insulin is not administered on time. Type 1 diabetes can be fatal if patient avoids taking insulin for a long period of time as his blood sugar levels will rise abnormally and his body will be incapable of producing energy derived from fat and carbohydrate metabolism.
Type 2 Diabetes:
In type 2 diabetes patients undergo mutative changes following which their body becomes incapable of using the insulin for metabolism. In type 2 diabetes the cells present in the tissues do not allow insulin to perform its function of carrying glucose to the mitochondria present in the cells which metabolizes the glucose for producing energy. Hence metabolism rate falls and patient's body cannot produce energy from the fat and carbohydrates obtained from food.
Like type 1 patients with diabetes type 2 also suffers from high glucose content in the blood. But unlike type 1, patients suffering from type 2 diabetes do not suffer from insulin deficiency and the beta cells present in the pancreas produce insulin normally. Unlike type 1, type 2 diabetes can be cured if patients follow the treatment along with improved diet and lifestyle for a considerable period of time. Patients with type 2 diabetes are not prescribed with insulin dosages and medication is given instead to break the mutation of the cells so that they can respond to the effects and functions of insulin effectively.
Patients with both types of diabetes need to follow proper medication and treatment along with a better lifestyle that includes medically prescribed diet program and regular physical activity. Under proper treatment and supervision, diabetic patients can live a normal and healthy life without suffering from severe complication which can happen otherwise.